了解用于描述海洋和水动力技术的基本技术和关键术语.

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点吸收器

波浪能捕获装置, 与波长相比,主维相对较小, 并且能够从大于设备物理尺寸的波前捕获能量. 有漂浮和水下模型.

埋压差

波浪能捕获装置, which can be considered a fully submerged point absorber; a pressure differential is induced within the device as the wave passes driving a fluid pump to create mechanical energy.

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振荡水柱

Partially submerged structure that encloses a column of air above a column of water; a collector funnels waves into the structure below the waterline, causing the water column to rise and fall; this alternately pressurizes and depressurizes the air column, 推或拉它通过涡轮机. 有岸上的和漂浮的模型.

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超过设备

Partially submerged structure; a collector funnels waves over the top of the structure into a reservoir; water runs back out to the sea from this reservoir through a turbine. 有岸上的和漂浮的模型.

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衰减器

一种主轴方向与入射波方向平行的波能捕获装置,当波通过时,该装置各部件的相对运动将能量转化为能量.

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振荡波喘振转换器

Any of several devices that capture wave energy directly without a collector by using relative motion between a float/flap/membrane and a fixed reaction point; the float/flap/membrane oscillates along a given axis dependent on the device; mechanical energy is extracted from the relative motion of the body part relative to its fixed reference.

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轴流式水轮机

Typically has two or three blades mounted on a horizontal shaft to form a rotor; the kinetic motion of the water current creates lift on the blades causing the rotor to turn driving a mechanical generator. 这些涡轮必须朝着气流的方向. 有冠状旋翼和开放式旋翼两种型号.

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交叉流涡轮

Typically has two or three blades mounted along a vertical shaft to form a rotor; the kinetic motion of the water current creates lift on the blades causing the rotor to turn driving a mechanical generator. 这些涡轮机可以与来自多个方向的气流一起工作,而不需要重新定向. 有冠状旋翼和开放式旋翼两种型号.

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往复式装置

利用水流产生与水流方向横向的摆动部分的升力或阻力. 这种行为可以由涡流、马格努斯效应或气流颤振引起.

摆动水翼船:(往复装置的例子)

Similar to an airplane wing but in water; yaw control systems adjusts their angle relative to the water stream, creating lift and drag forces that cause device oscillation; mechanical energy from this oscillation feeds into a power conversion system.

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海洋热能转换(OTEC)

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闭路

这些系统使用低沸点的液体, 如氨, 转动涡轮机发电. 表面温暖的海水通过热交换器泵入,在热交换器中低沸点的流体被汽化. 膨胀的蒸汽使汽轮发电机转动. 寒冷的深海海水通过第二个热交换器将蒸汽冷凝成液体, 然后通过系统回收.

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开式循环

这些系统利用热带海洋温暖的表层水发电. 当把温暖的海水放在低压容器中,它就会沸腾. 膨胀的蒸汽驱动附在发电机上的低压涡轮. 在低压容器中留下盐分的蒸汽几乎是纯净的淡水. 它通过暴露在深海水中的低温中凝结成液体.

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混合动力

这些系统结合了闭循环和开循环系统的特点. 在混合系统中, 温暖的海水进入真空室,在那里迅速蒸发成蒸汽, 类似于开循环蒸发过程. 蒸汽蒸发低沸点流体(在闭环中),驱动涡轮机发电.


来自NREL的OTEC原理图

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